Situation in the Sudan and activities of the United Nations Integrated Transition Assistance Mission in the Sudan – Report of the Secretary-General (S/2022/400) [EN/AR] – Sudan
1. This report is submitted pursuant to Security Council resolution 2579 (2021), by which the Council decided to extend the mandate of the United Nations Integrated Transition Assistance Mission in the Sudan (UNITAMS) until 3 June 2022 and requested me to report every 90 days on the implementation of the Mission’s mandate. The report covers political, security, human rights, rule of law and protection, socio-economic and humanitarian developments in Sudan from 22 February to 5 May 2022 and provides an update on implementation of the Mission’s mandate, with gender considerations integrated as a cross-cutting axis. cutting problem everywhere.
II. Significant developments
A. Political situation
2. The political situation in the Sudan remained deadlocked following the resignation of Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok, mentioned in my previous report (S/2022/172). In this context, national and international efforts to facilitate a political process to restore democratic transition have intensified. The United Nations, the African Union and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) have begun joint facilitation efforts with all stakeholders to find a way out of the crisis through a process controlled and led by the Sudan. Several Sudanese actors have also developed political initiatives to facilitate the return to constitutional order and civil governance.
3. Throughout the reporting period, neighborhood resistance committees continued to organize regular demonstrations across the country, although on a smaller scale than in the previous reporting period. Demonstrators continued, often blocking roads, to oppose military rule and denounce deteriorating economic conditions. Organizers continued to call for peaceful protests. While most protesters answered that call, a few clashed with security forces. The latter continued to use tear gas, water cannons, rubber bullets and, occasionally, live ammunition to disperse protesters. Sudanese authorities have often blocked major roads and bridges ahead of protests, especially in Khartoum.
4. In addition to organizing protests, resistance committees in Khartoum and other states continued their efforts to forge a common position on the way forward for the country. On February 27, the Khartoum State Resistance Committees held a press conference announcing their “Charter for the Establishment of People’s Authority”, calling for “continuation of peaceful resistance”, “overthrow [of] the military coup” and the “drafting [of] a transitional constitution that establishes transitional governance structures with the aim of achieving the goals of the revolution”.
5. On 28 February, UNITAMS published the summary report of the consultations it has conducted since 8 January, in which it identified areas of consensus and divergence among stakeholders on the way forward to restore the political transition. The African Union and IGAD Special Envoys for Sudan, Mohamed El Hacen Lebatt and Ismail Wais, respectively, visited Khartoum on several occasions during the reporting period to support international and regional efforts aimed at help Sudanese stakeholders restore the political transition. The visit of the IGAD Special Envoy took place after the publication in February of the IGAD report on a fact-finding mission to Sudan.
6. Following the conclusion of the consultations facilitated by UNITAMS, the African Union, IGAD and the United Nations agreed to work together and formed a trilateral cooperation mechanism in support of a process led by Sudan to end the political crisis and restore a civilian-led system. transitional government. The three organizations held joint meetings with Sudanese stakeholders from all political and social walks of life to reach agreement on immediate priority issues, focusing on transitional constitutional arrangements, selection of the prime minister and cabinet, elections, government programs and a roadmap on the way forward. before.
7. A number of national initiatives aimed at resolving the political crisis also emerged during the reporting period. On March 1, a group of university vice-chancellors announced an initiative to develop a unified charter on political transition by reaching out to a wide range of actors, including civil society, resistance committees and the Association of Sudanese Professionals. This initiative has been stalled since the appointment on March 29 of new heads of 30 public universities by the President of the Sovereign Council, Lieutenant General Abdel-Fattah Al-Burhan, following a decree dissolution of the boards of directors of public universities. . Political coalitions and parties have also actively sought to form alliances around common positions on constitutional arrangements for the transition period. Various prominent national figures have proposed draft initiatives to help find common ground on contentious issues, such as civil-military relations.
8. From March 24 to 26, the Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF) – excluding the Justice and Equality Movement – met in El Damazin, Blue Nile State, and proposed the launching of a two-phase dialogue initiative: first, to reach an agreement between the signatories of the Constitutional Document on the formation of a government for the remainder of the transition period and, second, to settle key issues between the political forces, to namely the system of governance, the constitution and the conduct of elections. SRF affirmed its commitment to the full implementation of all tracks of the Juba Peace Agreement.
9. From 24 to 27 April, the authorities released 19 political detainees affiliated with the Committee for the Dismantling of the June 30, 1989 Regime and the Recovery of Public Funds (Dismantling Committee) on bail in the form of personal guarantees. The work of the Dismantling Committee had been interrupted since the October 25 military coup and the detainees accused of alleged embezzlement of public funds. Most of the 19 detainees had been detained for about three months. Among those released were former Cabinet Affairs Minister Khalid Omer Yousif and former Sovereign Council member Muhammad Al-Faki.
10. At the same time, the authorities took several steps to reverse the accountability measures put in place during Mr. Hamdok’s tenure. On March 7, security forces raided the premises of the office of an Independent Commission of Inquiry which had been stipulated in the 2019 Constitutional Document and created by Mr. Hamdok when he was Prime Minister to investigate the murder of protesters in Khartoum on June 3, 2019. On March 21, the Central Bank of Sudan ordered national banks to unfreeze 646 individual bank accounts and 373 corporate bank accounts, which the Dismantling Committee had frozen as part of its work to fight against corruption and recovery of assets stolen under former President Omer Al-Bashir. Separately, on April 7, a Sudanese court issued a judicial decision acquitting former National Congress Party leader Ibrahim Ghandour and 12 others, citing lack of evidence. The defendants had been arrested in June 2020 for crimes against the state.
11. Implementation of the Juba Peace Agreement has remained uneven. On March 9 and 14, authorities in West Kordofan and South Kordofan, respectively, inaugurated deputy governors affiliated with the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-Northern Malik Agar Faction faction, thus advancing the establishment of structures. of governance outlined under the Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile (Two Zones) track of the Juba Peace Agreement. Meanwhile, in eastern Sudan, on April 11, the Beja High Council announced its decision to reimpose a blockade on Port Sudan, citing the lack of resolution on the eastern path of the Juba peace accord. , to which he remains opposed. Some progress has been made in establishing security arrangements in Darfur, as described below.